Vitamin B12, along with iron and folic acid, work to ensure that a dog's nervous system functions properly. It is also needed for normal cell growth.
When your dog is deficient in vitamin B12, he may become sluggish. It is likely he will not want to go for walks or to play. Vitamin B12 helps maintain a dog's normal energy level. Another symptom of B12 deficiency is a lack of appetite. Your dog may not want to eat, no matter what kind of food you put in front of him. If your dog exhibits these symptoms, the cause could be lack of sufficient levels of vitamin B12, or it could mean that your dog has inherited or developed a condition in which he does not absorb the vitamin B12 he is receiving through his normal diet.
This is a very common condition in certain breeds, including giant Schnauzers as well as beagles and border collies. In these dogs this condition is almost always inherited genetically passed onand can occur at different ages, depending on the breed.
In this situation, your dog may exhibit an additional symptom: he may experience weight loss or fail to gain weight if he is a puppy. Like dogs that size ya uume deficient in vitamin B12, these animals will be lethargic.
They may lose weight. If not treated, these dogs can begin to experience gastrointestinal disease. If your dog exhibits these symptoms, certain laboratory tests can determine whether a vitamin B12 deficiency or malabsorption is the cause. A complete blood work up, including a white blood cell count and serum check will be performed. Most veterinarians will also do a urinalysis, to look at white blood cell counts there as well.
Treatment for both vitamin B12 deficient dogs and those with the genetic tendency to not absorb it, is a B12 vitamin supplement. Most supplements are water soluble and can be given to your dog with a syringe, injecting it into his mouth. In severe cases the B12 may have to be administered through an injection directly in your dog's hind leg. This allows the vitamin to be more readily absorbed by the body. If your dog is healthy, but you want to increase his appetite or energy level, you can also give your dog a vitamin B12 supplement.
However, in this case a multivitamin containing complex B vitamins may be the best choice.Thiamine may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your dog or cat is receiving could interact with thiamine. Such drugs may include:. Nicholas Dodman August 08, Share:. Was this article helpful? It is a water-soluble vitamin used for dogs and cats to treat thiamine deficiency.
The functions of thiamine include metabolism of carbohydrates, maintenance of normal growth, transmission of nerve impulses, and acetylcholine synthesis. Following absorption, thiamine is quickly converted to its active form, thiamin pyrophosphate TPPby a specific enzyme, thiamin diphosphotransferase. Neurological signs may include exaggerated reflexes, proprioceptive deficits, mydriasis, reduced or absent menace reflex, tremors, and nystagmus.
Various electrocardiographic abnormalities are seen in dogs and cats with thiamine deficiency. Thiamine deficiency has been reported in dogs and cats fed uncooked meat containing sulphur dioxide SO2 as a preservative. Such food may induce thiamine deficiency when mixed with thiamine-replete commercial pet foods. Thiamine is broken down by thiaminase found in certain types of raw fish tuna, salmon, shellfish and rice bran.
Tannins found in coffee and tea inhibit the absorption of thiamine. Excess feeding of foods rich in thiaminase or ones than impair thiamine absorption will lead to thiamine deficiency.
Depending on the product, methionine may be available as a prescription drug or as an over-the-counter medication. However, it should not be administered to animals except under the supervision and guidance of a veterinarian. Brand Names and Other Names of Thiamine This drug is registered for use in humans, horses, dogs, and cats. Veterinary formulations: Numerous generic preparations. Uses of Thiamine for Dogs and Cats Thiamine may be used for: Treatment of thiamine deficiency Adjunctive treatment in lead poisoning and ethylene glycol toxicity Precautions and Side Effects Thiamine is generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, an side effects are rare.
Thiamine should not be administered to animals that are hypersensitive to it. Such drugs may include: Amprolium a coccidiostat inhibits thiamine absorption Thiamine may enhance the action of neuromuscular blockers How Thiamine is Supplied Thiamine is available in 20mg enteric-coated ; 50 mg; mg; mg tablets.
Thiamine is also included in several B-complex vitamin preparations. Dosing Information of Thiamine for Dogs and Cats Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian. The dosage prescribed may vary depending on the reason for prescribing. The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects.
Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your dog or cat feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse. In dogs, the usual dose is 0. Popular Posts. Next Article.Vitamins for the dogs are also necessary, not just for us humans. Without these little helpers, the nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates or fats in the body cannot be utilized.
Some vitamins can produce a dog body itself. Other vitamins must be fed in the appropriate amount. The metabolism of a dog is very complex. In order for it to function smoothly, it also needs the vitamins as well as the enzymes. The enzymes act as accelerators for individual chemical reactions. Vitamins support the enzymes. Vitamins ensure optimal growth, help with energy production and play a large role in digestion. Also, the excretion, the detoxification and the defense of diseases are influenced by vitamins.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, which is contained in egg yolk, liver, milk or fish oil. The dog stores the vitamin in the liver. Colored fruits and vegetables contain the precursor of this vitamin. If the dog eats these foods, his body converts this so-called pro vitamin beta carotene into vitamin A, which the dog body needs for a healthy skin and for his eyesight. A deficiency of vitamin A can lead to diseases flaky and dry skin and acne.
Bubbles in the mouth, an infection susceptibility and growth disturbances are likewise the dangers with an under-supply. However, always make sure that your dog does not get too much vitamin A. This happens when you feed a lot of liver. Overdose leads to serious health problems.
Signs of this can be over-excitability, as well as bone formation on the vertebral bone or a potassium excess in the blood. Vitamin D is also fat soluble. It is important for the intake of calcium and phosphorus in the intestine.
Vitamins for the Dog – A, D, E, K, C and B in the Right Dosage
It helps to keep the bones of our dogs healthy. Vitamin D is present in liver and fish. A deficiency is rare. Overuse can lead to calcification. Vitamin E is also one of the fat-soluble vitamins and is contained in nuts or seeds. It supports energy production and protects the animal from cardiovascular disease.
Too much or too little vitamin E has no effect on the animal.Cat: No good data are available By injection — micrograms per cat subcutaneously once weekly for 6 weeks then over months may be given. Oral treatment unlikely to be of much benefit in malabsorption states e.
Note: the human RDA of B12 is approximately 2 mcg per day. Was this article helpful? Nicholas Dodman July 09, Share:. Overview of Using Vitamin B12 for Dogs and Cats Vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin is essential to growth, cell reproduction, hematopoesis, and nucleoprotein, myelin synthesis, and treating B12 deficiency for dogs and cats.
It is also essential for the maintenance of the integrity of the nervous system and for the synthesis of molecules involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, and the production of energy.
The cobalt-containing B12 molecule is the largest molecule to be transferred across the intestinal mucosa and transfer occurs only in the ileum.
B12 is generally absent from plant and vegetable food sources, unless the food is contaminated by microbes.
B12 Vitamin for Dogs
Ingested B12 is bound to R-proteins and must be liberated by calcium, proteases, and bicarbonate in the duodenum before it can be absorbed. Free B12 then attaches to intrinsic factor IF to be transported across ileal cells as a dimer. It is then transported to the liver in the bloodstream bound to transcobalamin-2 TC The liver is a rich repository for B12 and releases it, as needed into the systemic blood stream. Frank deficiency of B12 or gastric, intestinal, or pancreatic disorders that affect the absorption of B12 will lead to B12 deficiency.
Deficiency of B12 causes pernicious megaloblastic anemia by affecting DNA production. Also, since B12 is involved in the synthesis of lipid and protein components of myelin, demyelination and nerve degeneration will occur in severe B12 deficiency. The most important reactions in the body in which B12 is involved are: a rearrangement of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA for use in gluconeogenesis b transfer of a methyl group from N5-methyl tetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the formation of methionine [under the influence of methlycobalamin synthase] with resultant formation of tetrahydrofolate.
Tetrahydrofolate is involved in purine, pyrimidine, and nucleic acid biosynthesis. Clinical signs of B12 deficiency include inappetance, lethargy, and failure to thrive. Hematological signs include non-regenerative megaloblastic anemia, anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, and neutropenia with hypersegmentation, Biochemical signs of B12 deficiency include reduced serum cobalamin levels, increased serum methylmalonic acid levels, homocystinuria and methylmalonuria.
A congenital B12 malabsorption syndrome has been reported in giant schnauzers, border collies, beagles, and in cats. Veterinary formulations: None except as part of multivitamin formulations Uses of B12 for Dogs and Cats Treatment of primary or secondary B12 deficiency. Precautions and Side Effects Vitamin B12 is essentially non-toxic but it should not be given to animals with known hypersensitivity to it or to cobalt.
Anaphylactic shock and death have been reported in humans following administration of vitamin B12 by injection.FTC Disclosure: If you make a purchase via a link on this page, I may receive a small commission, at no added cost to you. Vitamins for dogs are as essential as they are for people. Vitamins play an important role in the health of a dog and should be considered as a dietary supplement according to the age, size and physical condition of the dog, as well as the type of food he consumes.
Vitamins are present in trace amounts in most foods and they are essential for numerous functions performed in the body. For example:. Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissue, whereas water soluble vitamins are stored in only minute amounts by the body.
Therefore, water soluble vitamins need to be replenished daily, since any excesses are excreted by the body every day. Vitamin A is abundant in the yellow pigment carotene in plants. Dogs can easily convert carotene into Vitamin A in their bodies, and the vitamin is stored in fat cells, mainly in the liver. Vitamin A is very important to ensure the proper growth and development of puppies and it is essential for healthy hair and skin, strong muscles, as well as good night vision.
Deficiency in vitamin A can cause female dogs to have irregular ovulation and male dogs to become sterile. Vitamin A is also an important antioxidant which may protect against certain forms of cancer in dogs. The optimal dosages to be given to dogs should be about UI per pound of food consumed daily. Overdoses of Vitamin A could cause weakness in the muscles and abnormal formation of bones. However, unless a dog is given excessively high doses of vitamin A over a long period of time, toxicity is very rare.
B vitamins are important in maintaining a positive environment for neural regeneration. B vitamins are also essential for growth. Deficiency of B vitamins will result in a loss of reflexes and nerve control; poor growth; appetite loss; diarrhea; hair loss; eye abnormalities; and heart failure. B-complex in particular B2 and B6 is also essential for the prevention of bladder stone formation in dogs.
B complex is a balanced form of vitamin B supplementation, which is the only way B vitamins should be given, unless instructed otherwise by your veterinarian. Since they are water soluble, any excess can be eliminated in the urine. Dogs can produce Vitamin C in their bodies under normal situations, but when a dog is under stress either physically due to, say, an illness, or mentally due to for example boarding at a kennelhe may need vitamin C in excess of his manufacturing capacity.
Visit this page to learn more about the benefits of vitamin C to dogs, the best form of vitamin C to use, and the dosages to give to dogs. Vitamin D helps the body to retain calcium and is therefore important in bone and skeletal formation, as well as nerve and muscle control.
Recent studies have also found associations between low serum vitamin D levels and higher risks of certain cancer types.
Visit Vitamin D for Dogs to learn more about this vitamin and see whether your dog needs supplementation. The main sources of Vitamin E are from cold pressed vegetable oils, such as safflower oil and wheat germ, meats, nuts, and green leafy vegetables. Vitamin E is an important nutrient and plays an important role in cell respiration and the formation of cell membranes.
It is also a powerful antioxidant which facilitates fat oxidation and increases the production of HDL good cholesterol. Vitamin E is useful in preventing and slowing the development of cataractsheart conditions and other muscle disorders. At higher doses, it has anti-inflammatory properties as well, and can prevent and improve chronic skin problems and immune mediated disorders.
For dogs with skin and coat problems, adding Vitamin E to their diets will also help greatly. Deficiencies of Vitamin E will cause cell damage, reproductive failure, and a host of other problems, such as skin problems, inflammatory problems, etc.
According to the Handbook of Veterinary Drugs, optimal dosages of Vitamin E for healthy dogs range from IU once or twice daily depending on size. Dosage for unhealthy dogs will of course depend on the size, extent of definiency, medical condition, other drugs administered, etc. Immune-mediated skin disease often requires IU twice daily. This vitamin is important for normal blood functions.A vitamin B deficiency in your dog can be easily noticed and you can administer the lacking vitamins, so that your pet can lead a healthy life.
The essential vitamins are:. Fat soluble vitamins will be stored in lipocytes, so with these vitamins can cause toxicity. These essential vitamins can be found in many foods but not always in sufficient quantities.
Vitamin B12 for Dogs and Cats
They can also be easily destroyed by certain enzymes. Therefore, you have to assure your pet gets the necessary vitamins. Thiamin is also called vitamin B1 and helps the normal function of muscles and nerves; vitamin B1 also converts glucose to energy. Thiamin can be found in meat, fish, milk, fruit and vegetables. Raw fish contains an enzyme which destroys thiamin and this can lead to thiamin deficiency.
Niacin helps enzymes to perform their normal function. The best source of niacin is meat. Some symptoms of niacin deficiency are black tongue, inflammation of gums and lips, loss of appetite and bloody diarrhea.
Known also as vitamin B2, riboflavin is responsible for the muscle strength, normal growth of the bones and the hair. A dog with riboflavin deficiency will have an impaired growth, vision problems, limb weakness, fainting and may even be at a higher risk of developing a heart attack.
The panthoteic acid is another important vitamin and helps in the transformation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into energy. The lack of panthotenic acid can lead to loss of hair, stomach problems, diarrhea and abnormal graying of hair. Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, is essential in the function of the amino acids. This vitamin can be found in many foods but it can be easily destroyed in the manufacturing process.
The lack of pyridoxine can cause skin lesions, tooth cavities, anemia, poor growth or kidney stones. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are closely related. Their deficiency can lead to a severe anemia. Organs and meat can give your pet the required amounts of folic acid and B Avoid feeding raw egg whites to your pet, as these destroy biotin through an enzyme called avidin.
Biotin deficiency can be recognized in poor hair condition, skin lesions, diarrhea and weakness or paralysis of the limbs. Vet Info search. Tweet Like Share Email. Thiamin Thiamin is also called vitamin B1 and helps the normal function of muscles and nerves; vitamin B1 also converts glucose to energy. Thiamin deficiency is signaled by weakness, loss of reflexes and lack of appetite. Niacin Niacin helps enzymes to perform their normal function. Riboflavin Known also as vitamin B2, riboflavin is responsible for the muscle strength, normal growth of the bones and the hair.Vitamin B Complex - What and Why?
Panthotenic Acid The panthoteic acid is another important vitamin and helps in the transformation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into energy. It can be found in raw meat and vegetables. Pyridoxine Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, is essential in the function of the amino acids. Folic acid and Vitamin B12 Folic acid and vitamin B12 are closely related.As a supplemental source of B complex vitamins and complexed cobalt for use in preventing or treating deficiencies in Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Swine, Dogs and Cats.
The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Available for Android and iOS devices. Subscribe to Drugs. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information - verify here.
Skip to Content. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the Vitamin B Complex information published above. However, it remains the responsibility of the readers to familiarize themselves with the product information contained on the US product label or package insert.
Thiamine Hydrochloride. Riboflavin 5' Phosphate Sodium. Pyridoxine Hydrochloride. Cobalt as Cyanocobalamin. Benzyl Alcohol as preservative. Water For Injection. Calves and Foals. Adult Cattle and Horses. Lambs and Weaning Pigs. Growing Lambs and Pigs. Adult Sheep and Swine. Reorder No.